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GLOSSARY OF GLASS REPAIR AND INDUSTRY TERMS

  A     B     C     D     E     F     G     H     I     J     K     L     M     N     O     P     Q     R     S     T     U     V     W     X     Y     Z  


 

A:

Annealing
In the manufacturing of flat glass, it is the process of controlled cooling, which is done to prevent residual stresses in the glass.

ASTM
American Society for Testing and Materials

Autoclave
A vessel that employs high pressure heat used to produce a bond between glass and PVB or urethane sheet, creating a laminated glass product.

 

B:

Bent Glass
Flat glass that is curved into shapes while still hot.

Beveling
The process of edge finishing glass to a beveled angle.

Blemish
A noticeable imperfection in glass.

Blisters
Bubbles in a coating film that forms during the heat treating process.

Bow (or Warp)
A curve, bend or other deviation from flatness in glass.

Break Pattern
The resulting pattern formed by the cracks in glass when broken. Also called the fracture pattern.

Bubbles
A gas pocket in the interlayer material or between the glass. In flat glass, a inclusion greater than 1/32" in diameter.

Bulb Edge
The extreme lateral edge of the ribbon, as drawn in the flat glass manufacturing process.

Bullet Resistant Glass
The multiple lamination of glass. Glass and plastic that are designed to resist penetration from small fire arms.

Butt Glazing
The installation of glass where the vertical glass edges are without structural supporting mullions.

 

C:

Case Hardened
A term sometimes used for tempered glass.

Center Tension
Tension stresses within the center portion of heat-treated glass.

Ceramic Enamel
An inorganic and non-metallic coating used to be fused to a substrate.

Checks
Very small cracks in flat glass usually at the edge.

Chemically Strengthened Glass
Glass that has been heat treated from ion-exchange to produce a compressive stress layer at the treated surface area.

Chip
An imperfection due to breakage.

Crown Process
A method of making flat glass. Blowing a large bulb, opening it up, and spinning it flat.

Crush
A lightly pitted area on the glass surface, resulting in a dull gray appearance.

Cullet
Broken glass, extra glass from a previous melt or the edges that are trimmed off glass to size. Cullet is one of the essential ingredients in the raw batch in glass-making, it facilitates the melting process.

Cut Size
Glass cut to a specified width and length.

Cutting
Scoring glass with a diamond, steel wheel or other alloy wheel and breaking it along the score.

Cylinder Process
A manufacturing process of flat glass. Molten glass is blown and drawn into the form of a cylinder, which is subsequently split longitudinally, reheated, and flattened.

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D:

Deflection of Glass
The amount of bending of the center of glass.

Dice
The cubical pattern of a fracture in fully tempered glass.

Digs
Deep, short scratches.

Dirt
A small particle of foreign material imbedded in the surface of flat glass.

Distortion
Alteration of viewed images, caused by the variations in the flatness of glass.

Double Pane
Windows which have a layer of inert gas sealed between inner and outer pains. The gas that is typically used in this type of window is either argon or krypton.

Double Strength Glass
Float glass, approximately 1/8" (3mm) thick.

Drawn Glass
Glass produced by a continuous drawing operation.

 

E:

Edge Compression
Compressive stresses at the edge of heat-treated glass.

Edge Finish
A specified finish to the edges of glass. Sometimes called Edgework.

Edging
Grinding the edge of flat glass to the desired shape or finish.

Etch
To alter the surface of glass. Usually by hydrofluoric acid or other caustic sources. Permanent etching of glass can occur from long term, high alkali contact.

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F:

Fabricating Debris
Any debris resulting from the processing and fabricating of glass prior to the tempering process.

Fenestration
Any glass panel, window, door or skylight on a building.

Flat Glass
A term that describes flat glass, sheet glass, plate glass, cylinder and rolled glass.

Float Bath
A pool of molten metal, usually tin, in which molten glass is drawn into a flat sheet.

Float Glass
Glass formed on a bath of molten tin. The surface in contact with the tin is known as the tin surface. The top surface is known as the air surface.

Frit
Glass in particulate form.

Frosted
Surface treated to simulate frost.

Fully tempered glass
Flat or bent glass that has been heat-treated to a high surface and edge compression to meet ASTM C 1048 Standards. Fully tempered glass, if broken, will fracture into many small cubical pieces, known as dicing. Fully tempered glass is approximately four times stronger than annealed glass of the same thickness.

 

G:

GANA
Glass Association of North America.

Gaseous Inclusion
A round or elongated bubble in glass.

Glass
A hard brittle substance, usually transparent, made by fusing silicates, soda ash and lime stone, under high temperatures.

Glazing
A general term used to describe glass, panels, etc. Also the process of installing glass or panels into a prepared opening in windows, door panels, partitions, etc.

Glazing Select Quality
This represents the flat glass supplied when quality is not otherwise specified. (Typically q^3 from ATSM C 1036 Standard.)

Gloss
The degree of shine or luster on the surface of glass, ceramic enamel or ink.

 

H:

Heat-Absorbing Glass
Glass that absorbs a significant amount of solar energy.

Heat-Resisting Glass
Glass able to withstand high thermal shock, usually because of its low coefficient of expansion.

Heat-Strengthened Glass
Flat or bent glass that has been heat-treated to a specific surface and edge compression to meet the requirements of ASTM C 1048. Heat-strengthened glass is approximately two times as strong as annealed glass of the same thickness. Heat-strengthened glass is not considered safety glass, because it will not dice like fully tempered glass.

Heat-Treated
Term used for both fully tempered glass and heat-strengthened glass.

Hot End
Those manufacturing operations dealing with hot glass, which are melting, forming, and annealing.

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I:

Inclusion
A foreign solid or gas within the glass matrix.

Insulating Glass
Two or more pieces of glass spaced apart and hermetically sealed to form a single-glazed unit, with an air space between each lite. Commonly called IG units.

Interlayer
Any material used to bond two lites of glass together to form a laminate.

IWCA
International Window Cleaning Association.

 

J:            NONE

 

K:

Kink
An abrupt deviation on flat glass most commonly found near the edge of heat-treated glass.

 

L:

Laminated Glass
Two or more pieces of glass permanently bonded together with interlayer.

Leaded Glass
Pieces of glass bonded together at their edges. Usual with soldered lead.

Lehr
A long, tunnel-shaped oven for annealing glass, usually by a continuous process for slow cooling.

Lite
Another term for a pane of glass.

 

M:

Melting furnace
The glass melting assembly, including the melter, regenerators, flues, refiners, forehearths, channels, throats, etc.

Munitions
Horizontal or vertical bars that divide the glass area into smaller lites of glass.

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N:

NGA
National Glass Association.

O:

Open Bubble
A surface cavity formed by a gaseous inclusion.

Orange Peel
Roughness or waviness on the surface of glass which resembles the skin of an orange in texture.

 

P:

Patterned Glass
Rolled glass with a pattern imprinted on one or both sides. Usually used for light control on bath enclosures or decorative glazing.

Pilkington Float Glass Process
The process of making flat glass with a continuous pour of glass onto a molten tin bath.

Pittsburgh Sheet Process
The method of making sheet glass by drawing it vertically upward from a bath.

Plate Glass
Flat glass formed by the rolling process, then ground and polished on both sides.

Polariscope
A device for examining the amount of strain in a glass sample.

Pyrolytic Coated Glass
A thin Low-e coating applied to the hot surface of glass when manufactured.

 

Q:            NONE

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R:

R-Value
The thermal resistance of a glazing system.

Raw Batch
A glass batch without cullet.

Raw Cullet
A glass batch made of only cullet.

Reflective Glass
Glass with a metallic coating to reduce solar heat gain.

Ribbon
A continuous length of glass in process.

Roller Distortion or Roller Wave
A waviness resulting in horizontal heat-treated glass, as a result of glass being transported through the furnace on rollers.

Rub
Small scratches in glass, generally caused during shipping.

 

S:

Safety Glass
Flat or bent glass that is heat treated or laminated, and if broken would not cause serious injury.

Score
To penetrate the surface of glass with a cutting device, such as a glass cutter.

Scratch-Resistant Coating
Coating applied to glass surfaces to reduce scratching effects.

Scratches
Any marking or tearing of the glass surface.

Sealed Insulating Glass
(Same as "Insulating Glass ")

Seam
To grind or sand the sharp edges of a piece of glass, usually with a belt or wheel.

Seeds
Small bubbles in flat glass, less than 1/32" in diameter.

Sheet Glass
Flat glass made by continuous drawing in the vertical direction.

Silvering Process
The process of applying silver to the back of mirrors.

Single Pane
Windows with just one layer of glass. This type of window offers little protection against heat and cold.

Sizing Glass
To cut a piece of glass to a specific size.

Solar Control Glass
Tinted or coated glass that reduces solar heat gain through a glazed product.

Stain
Discoloration of glass.

Stones
Crystalline inclusion imbedded in the glass.

Strength, Double
Flat glass between 0.115 and 0.134 in. thick.

Strength, Single
Flat glass between 0.085 and 0.101 in. thick.

Stress (Residual)
Any tension or compression existing in the glass, usually as a result of incomplete annealing.

Surface Compression
Surface stresses in heat-treated glass, resulting from rapid cooling of glass surface to produce compressive stresses at the surface.

 

T:

Temper
The amount of residual stress in annealed glass.

Tempered Glass
A term for glass subjected to heat treatment, followed by rapid cooling, to produce a compressive surface layer.

Toughened Glass
A term sometimes used by foreign manufactures to identify heat-treated or fully tempered glass.

Triple Pane
Windows which seal two layers of inert gas within three panes of glass. Also known as Pane Insulated.

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U:            NONE

 

V:             NONE

 

W:

Water Glass
Sodium silicate glass that is soluble in water.

Window
An opening constructed in a wall to admit light or air, usually framed with glass and sometimes mounted to permit opening and closing.

Wired Glass
Flat glass with wire mesh embedded in the glass.

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X:            NONE

Y:             NONE

Z:             NONE

 

 

 
     
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